The Dukan diet is a four phase program, intended to reduce weight and support result during the whole life. The system has been developed by French nutritionist pierre Dukan. The first time I introduced the concept in 1977, the world organisation of the glory (along with the criticism) have collapsed in the Dukan after the publication of the book "I don't know you slim" in the year 2011. The book quickly became an international bestseller and has been translated into 14 languages.
The diet consists of four phases, the duration of each is calculated in function of the current and the ideal (or desired) weight.
The diet is composed of protein products, we practice the almost complete elimination of fats and carbohydrates. It is recommended that the lean meat (hence, the lamb and pork at this time, it is necessary to exclude), poultry (excluding fatty duck and goose), fish, seafood, eggs, dairy products rich in fat. In addition of protein is necessary to eat to 1.5 tablespoons of oat bran and drink at least 2 litres of water a day, as well as the consumption of large amounts of protein leads to dehydration and does not contribute to the digestion. At this stage it is necessary to say firmly to him "no", sauces, vegetable oils, sugar, sweet carbonated drinks, alcohol and juices. However, Dukan allows you to drink teas, infusions, coffee, chicory, and light, soft drinks, — yarn of synthetic sweeteners in place of sugar. And also recommended condiments, herbs, spices to make the meals more interesting, varied and attractive. On the basis of a previously determined amount of excess weight in this stage can last from two to ten days. As a general rule, during the first phase, the weight begins to fall rapidly, so that, in the week you can lose up to 5 kg, which, by the idea, stimulates the most of the new followers system not to surrender and to follow. On the other side of the scales, and side effects: dizziness and weakness, caused by the lack of sugar in the diet and dehydration. Therefore, it is recommended to avoid serious exercise, with the exception of daily 20-minute walk away.
The protein products bind with the carbohydrates in vegetables (and in addition — 2 of fruit a day). Protein days are alternated with protein-vegetable, one-to-one, two-two, five at a time or as shall be advisable under the same scheme of rotation of an equal number of days. The phase lasts until you reach the desired weight. Taking into account that, in the week on average is 1 kilogram, stage may last a month, two or even three. - Protein-vegetables every day should be an emphasis on proteins: the vegetables go, that is called, on load of work. And taboos imposed by the pope, the corn, the beans, beans, lentils, avocados, bananas, grapes and other rich in starch, sugars and fats, fruits and vegetables, are still prohibited from vegetable oils and sugar. Allowed, tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, radishes, peppers, asparagus, struchkovaya beans, eggplant, zucchini, squash, celery, and spinach. The carrot and the beet should be consumed in small amounts. The diet is supplemented with two tablespoons of oat bran a day. Still, you should drink around 1.5 litres of water a day and do 20 minutes of walk. The difficulty is slow in comparison with the first stage of weight reduction, regularly until your stop, because, along with the vegetables in the organism enters more water.
As its name indicates, phase consists in the fixing of the progress of the results. The number of days in the period must match the number released by the time of the diet kilos in a ratio of 10 to 1, that is, from 10 days to 1 kilo of weight shed. In this beginning of the difficulty: if you shed a considerable amount of kilos, is in the third phase would take several months. The products of the first two phases are added to the starch of the potato, the corn, the beans (but not more than two times a week). The best: once a week you can feast on: there is everything what I want. The truth in the context of a meal — for example, only at breakfast or at dinner. In the compensation of one day per week must be fully the protein, corresponding to the first stage. The amount of oat bran increases to 2.5 tablespoons a day. Still you need to drink 1,5 liters of water a day and follow: walk at least 20 minutes a day.
This nutrient recommendations calculated for the whole life. They are fairly simple: one day per week must be fully the protein, in the rest of the days you can mix proteins with vegetables and add a couple of products with a high content of starch, a couple of pieces of bread, a little cheese. As in the previous case, you should drink 1.5 liters of water a day and add to food bran — 3 tablespoons a day. A couple of times a week can give you a pir — is forbidden, but the favorite for breakfast, lunch or dinner.
The Dukan diet, like other low-carb diet, is based on the idea that in order to remove the excess and fixing ideal weight is necessary for the body came out of the energy from the foods you eat every day, but of the body to save on a rainy day, that is to say, of the fat deposits. For the education of fat true carbohydrates, they are the first to go to the education of the energy. If carbohydrate in the diet over what is necessary for life, that are deposited on the stock. Accordingly, if there are less than — previously accrued goes in progress. Carbohydrates quickly quench hunger, but for a short time: the level of sugar in the blood rises sharply, and then falls, causing the sensation of hunger. It is a process that accelerates itself: the more carbohydrates we eat, the more you want it. The protein is digested slower when digestion breaks down into amino acids, which is in and of itself reduces the energy consumption of the process, and for a long time nourishes the body. Amino acids are the building blocks for muscle mass, therefore, a protein-rich diet in combination with exercise leads to the representation of the relief muscle. The result is a perfect image: the fat deposits to melt, the muscles are strengthened, the body Romanian.
Some critics Dukan claim that the French have not invented anything new, and remade it his way, published in 1972, the american system of a cardiologist robert Atkins. The Atkins diet is based on the restriction in the diet of carbohydrates: as a result, the body changes with the national liberation of energy from glucose (sugar) in the breakdown of accumulated fats. The diet consists of two phases. The first, which lasts 14 days and is, in reality, the diet, limiting carbohydrates and calories. During this phase, it produces the body change. The second phase — supported that involves a permanent control of the amount of carbohydrates, but not calories. Atkins proposed that the consumed amount of carbohydrates of the points (1 gram of carbs = 1 point), and limits the amount of carbohydrates of 20 points in a day, in the first phase and 40 points in the initial phase of the second phase. In the future, each one contains optimum for the proper maintenance of weight, the amount of carbohydrate by itself. Unlike the Atkins, Dukan does not restrict the consumption of saharozameniteley, does not consider the amount of carbohydrates and is introduced into the diet of wheat bran, which satiate the feeling of hunger and stimulate digestion.
Simplified the analogous national of the Atkins diet. Each product is assigned the "price" of units, each unit corresponds to one gram of carbohydrates. The first week of the diet is the introduction, which limits the carbohydrate portion of 20 grams per day. After to lose weight, they recommend eating no more than 40 grams of carbohydrates a day, and so as not to mark the excess, of not more than 60 grams. For example: 100 grams of white bread containing 50 grams of carbohydrates, while 100 grams of beef — 0 grams, and in consequence, of the points. The obvious conclusion is: to fit in standard 40 or 60 points, you need to consume or very little "expensive" carbohydrates products or many of the "cheap" protein.
It consists of two stages for the reduction and stabilization of the weight. The French explorer montignac (education, political scientist, he has been interested in the issue of nutrition due to the own integrity) places his method as a system of power, not by the diet, and recommended to continue it permanently. The sense of its method of the same, as in the other low-carbohydrate diets: reduce the amount of carbohydrates, leading to an increase in the level of sugar in the blood, and the deferral of excess weight, and increasing the consumption of foods that break down more slowly, quenching the body for a long time. He divided the food into two groups. In the first fallen food with a high rating called the glycemic index, that is to say, they cause a considerable increase in the levels of sugar in the blood. As is easy to guess — sweets, alcohol, flour products, starchy fruits, and tubers. The second group, with a low rating called the glycemic index, montignac, took the meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products without fat. The first group of montignac advised to avoid, in the second part, recommended. In addition, montignac proposed to divide the consumption of proteins and carbohydrates c high rating called the glycemic index of different techniques of food.
The diet of the stone age, the diet of the hunter-gatherer. In diet includes foods that ate our ancestors of 2.5 million years ago is a player: meat, fish, nuts, fruits, vegetables. The principle of selection is simple — all that you can catch in hunting or find, is allowed, all the rest — cereals, dairy products and their derivatives — hotel. This feeding system can withstand even a vegetarian ideology. Its adherents claim that the man is genetically locked in the consumption of meat products, and everything that appears as the development of the civilization, causing damage to the body and leads to obesity and serious diseases. Diet paleodiet partially overlaps with the fact that it enables the Dukan diet; effects on the body of the two diets is almost identical. Paleodiet unlike the Dukan diet much more strictly appropriate to the limitation of the products, and also based on a strong ideological component.
Pierre Dukan adheres to the third phase of your diet.
It is considered that the Dukan diet is an easy road to the ideal weight. In the first place, it does not restrict the calorie content of the diet, the size and number of servings, the time and the number of meals. In the second place, the phase of "Attack", based solely on the proteins of the products tends to the rapid fall of weight, which inspires the recruits don't give up after the first few days and continue. Finally, the Dukan diet assures the fixation of a long-term result subject to several simple rules of power. Following their regularly allow all: the pizza of the night, and the alcohol and sweets and to stay within a desired weight.
In 2011, pierre Dukan, sued his fellow american nutritionist jean-michel cohen for "the dissemination of defamatory information about another person" (i.e., himself) and lost. Cohen said that miracles do not exist and to lose weight, you should eat in moderation and move more, and the other face of the "magical" high-protein diets are health problems, for example, increased levels of cholesterol and, as a result, problems with the heart and blood vessels. The judge ruled in favor of cohen on the basis of medical and scientific studies. Soon after that, the Dukan, filed in the court of one of his patients, stating that the dietitian prescribed a medication to reduce the sensation of hunger, which are normally used for the treatment of diabetes. Abuse of this medicine in france, have already died, so the situation received wide publicity. Also Dukan repeatedly accused of violation of medical ethics, a health professional code and assaulted disciplinary statements by the recommendations that endanger the health of the nation and go against the opinion of official medicine.
Numerous judicial and not only of the proceedings is the result of the reluctance of the Dukan recognize tested by the official medicine of the facts that indicate that your diet has limitations and contraindications. Denying official of the medicine, you have to be prepared for what the medicine will begin to reject you. The result is logical. In the year 2012 Dukan by his own will, came out of the council of physicians of france. In 2014 the Dukan who have been excluded from the medical record, in fact, gives the right to be called by the doctor in france, for the commercial promotion of their diet.